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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

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Since self-respect has, in the past, been, in the
main, confined to the privileged minority, it may
easily be undervalued by those who are in opposition
to an established oligarchy. And those who believe
that the voice of the people is the voice of God may
infer that any unusual opinion or peculiar taste is
almost a form of impiety, and is to be viewed as a
culpable rebellion against the legitimate authority of
the herd. This will only be avoided if liberty is as
much yalued as democracy, and it is realized that a
society in which each is the slave of albis only a little
better than one in which each is the slave of a despot.
There is equality where all are slaves, as well as
where all are free. This shows that equality, by
itself, is not enough to make a good society.
Perhaps the most important problem in an in-
dustrial society, and certainly one of the most
difficult, is that of making work interesting, in the
sense of being no longer merely a means to wages.
This is a problem which arises especially in relation
to unskilled work. Work that is difficult is likely to
be attractive to those who are able to do it. Crossword
puzzles and chess are closely analogous to some kinds
of skilled work, and yet many people spend much
effort on them, merely for pleasure. But with the
increase of machinery there is a continual increase in
the proportion of wage-earners whose work is com-
pletely monotonous and completely easy. Professor
Abercrombie, in his Greater London Plan, 1944,
points out, incidentally and without emphasis, that